The journey to effective Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatments has spanned over 30 years, characterized by numerous setbacks and gradual progress. Today, new therapies like anti-amyloid antibodies offer promising advances, yet the path to these developments has been fraught with challenges.

Early efforts and setbacks in Alzheimer’s treatment

AD treatment began with the development of drugs like acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, which managed symptoms but failed to address the underlying causes of the disease. Researchers turned their focus to amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer’s pathology, after identifying amyloid precursor protein gene mutations. This led to the development of immune-based strategies aimed at clearing these plaques from the brain.

However, the initial excitement over a vaccine targeting amyloid buildup quickly turned to dismay as severe side effects, including fatal brain inflammation, stopped human trials. UCSF’s Dr. Adam Boxer reflects on this era, noting,

“Early Alzheimer’s trials, though unsuccessful in their primary goals, provided invaluable insights that animal studies and observational research could not foresee. These trials were crucial for understanding how to develop better, safer therapies.”

The role of biomarkers in Alzheimer’s research

The turning point in AD research came with the advent of biomarkers such as brain PET scans capable of measuring amyloid plaques and tau tangles. These biomarkers vastly improved the understanding of who should be treated, at what stage of the disease, and the effectiveness of the therapies. Dr. Boxer emphasizes that it took years of trial and error to comprehend the side effects of anti-amyloid therapies and refine their use. This foundational knowledge paved the way for the current generation of anti-amyloid drugs, including lecanemab and donanemab.

Emerging therapies and clinical trial innovations

The successful phase 3 trials of lecanemab and donanemab have marked a new era in AD treatment, demonstrating that these drugs can significantly slow disease progression by reducing amyloid buildup. These breakthroughs have underscored the importance of selecting patients at early disease stages and leveraging biomarkers to guide treatment.

However, as these therapies become more widely used, the landscape of clinical trials is shifting. Dr. Boxer suggests that traditional trials comparing new drugs to placebos may soon become less feasible or ethical, particularly for symptomatic patients. Instead, novel trial designs such as “umbrella trials” and “basket trials” are gaining traction. These approaches test multiple therapies simultaneously or a single intervention across various conditions, respectively, streamlining the clinical development process and improving efficiency.

Focus on tau and future directions

The central role of tau protein in AD has emerged as a promising target for future therapies. Unlike amyloid plaques, which can accumulate without immediate cognitive decline, tau pathology closely correlates with the onset and progression of clinical symptoms. Dr. Boxer argues that targeting tau may yield more significant therapeutic benefits, as tau abnormalities strongly predict clinical decline patterns.

The NIH-supported Alzheimer’s Tau Platform Trial, led by Boxer, exemplifies this approach. Set to begin next year, this umbrella trial will evaluate various tau therapies in conjunction with anti-amyloid treatment, aiming to accelerate the development of effective AD therapies.

Enhancing diversity and innovation in trials

Dr. Boxer stresses the need for greater diversity and inclusivity in clinical trials to ensure that advancements in AD treatment benefit all populations. Developing blood-based biomarkers and promoting public-private partnerships are critical for improving access and fostering innovation. These strategies will be vital in building momentum for future breakthroughs in AD therapy.

Dr. Hakon Hakonarson, Founder and Chief Medical Advisor of Arctic Therapeutics, offers a perspective on the implications of this evolving research landscape:

“The past 30 years have taught us the critical importance of understanding disease mechanisms deeply before jumping to conclusions. At Arctic Therapeutics, we build on these lessons by integrating robust diagnostic tools with innovative treatment approaches like our AT-001. As the field moves towards more sophisticated trial designs and biomarker-driven strategies, we are poised to enhance early intervention and treatment efficacy, aiming to transform the standard of care for Alzheimer’s patients.”

Dr. Hakonarson’s insights reflect Arctic Therapeutics’ commitment to leveraging past research insights to drive future advancements in Alzheimer’s treatment.


The journey to effective Alzheimer’s treatments has been long and complex, but recent breakthroughs in anti-amyloid therapies and innovative trial designs offer a hopeful outlook. By integrating advanced diagnostics with emerging therapeutic strategies, the future of Alzheimer’s care promises to be more effective and inclusive, paving the way for significant improvements in patient outcomes.

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